or red-wood which is a long huge tree with almond-like leaves and tiny flowers. The fruit is round and crimson with a red wood. The color substance of this plant is Hematin and the tree grows in Mexico, Haiti, Cuba, north of Iran and other spots in the world. In Iran, it is known as Sourdar. A red color is taken from the trunk wood which is used in wool and silk dyeing. To get the color, they press the trunk to take the resin out and use it as crystal or powder. To make light and dark black, mordants are used; wool combined with alum and Baqam will create light amethyst, purple, dark purple, light and dark gray and black. Before drying, they may oxidize it. With sulfuric acid, the color turns thick and dark red, and with purple alkaline, it becomes darker. Black is sometimes made from the combination of the colors of Esparak, yellow wood and Baqam.
- Book Encyclopedia carpets from Iran, Mr. Ahmad Daneshgar